The functionality of the ear is closely intertwined with our daily lives. Any issue in any part of the ear can impact our hearing and balance, leading to hearing loss, balance disorders, or even dizziness. Let's delve into the structure and function of the ear together, understanding how to protect our ears starting from the basics!

Ear's Basic Structure

The ear comprises three parts: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

1. Outer Ear: Earlobe and Ear Canal

The outer ear consists of the earlobe and ear canal. The earlobe helps determine the direction of sound sources, and its shape aids in collecting sound.


Key structures include the ear rim, opposing ear rim, earlobe, triangular fossa, ear scaphoid, and earlobe. The earlobe assists in judging the direction of sound sources, and its shape facilitates sound collection.

Ear Canal:

Starting from the base of the ear scaphoid, the ear canal extends to the eardrum. Composed of cartilaginous and bony parts, the S-shaped canal is approximately 2.5-3.5 cm long. The ear canal serves as a sound transmission channel, conveying collected sounds from the outer ear to the middle ear with a pressure amplification effect.

2. Middle Ear: Tympanic Cavity, Pharyngotympanic Tube, Mastoid Air Cells, and Ossicles

The middle ear includes the tympanic cavity, pharyngotympanic tube, mastoid air cells, and ossicles.

Tympanic Cavity (Middle Ear):

The tympanic cavity is the largest irregularly shaped air-filled space within the temporal bone, located between the eardrum and the outer wall of the inner ear.

Eardrum (Tympanic Membrane):

An oval, translucent, thin membrane attached to the ear canal's bony and cartilaginous portions. The eardrum is inclined at a 45-degree angle to the sagittal and horizontal planes, providing protection.

Ossicles (Three Auditory Bones):

Comprising the malleus, incus, and stapes, these tiny bones play a crucial role in pressure amplification.

Pharyngotympanic Tube:

A channel connecting the middle ear and the nasopharynx. It regulates middle ear pressure, drains fluids, suppresses sound, and prevents reverse infections.

Mastoid Air Cells:

Air-filled spaces located above the middle ear.


The three smallest bones in the human body—malleus, incus, and stapes—connected to transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.

3. Inner Ear: Cochlea, Vestibule, and Semicircular Canals

The inner ear, also known as the labyrinth, consists of the bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth.

Bony Labyrinth (Osseous Labyrinth):

A complex system of twisted tubes and cavities, including the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals.


A spiral-shaped structure resembling a snail shell, the cochlea converts sound wave vibrations into neural impulses, transmitting them via the cochlear nerve to the auditory cortex for hearing.


An elliptical cavity connected to three semicircular canals in a "C" shape, contributing to balance regulation by transmitting signals about head position changes to the central nervous system.

Semicircular Canals:

Maintaining posture and balance-related sensory organs within the inner ear, consisting of the superior, posterior, and lateral semicircular canals.

Membranous Labyrinth:

Containing receptors for equilibrium and hearing, filled with endolymph. The membranous labyrinth and bony labyrinth are separated by perilymph.

Membranous Semicircular Canals:

Approximately one-fourth the size of the bony canals, including anterior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals, corresponding to the bony semicircular canals.

Auditory Transmission

Air Conduction:

Sound waves travel through the ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear, stimulating the cochlear nerve and reaching the auditory cortex, resulting in hearing.

Bone Conduction:

Sound waves cause vibrations in the skull bones, reaching the inner ear and auditory cortex, leading to hearing.

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Remember, protecting your ears starts with understanding their intricate structure and function. Embrace the journey of learning and caring for your hearing health!